Objective To examine the occurrence of ureteral stent failure in pediatric patients aged <10 years and to determine risk factors for failure. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 100 patients who underwent ureteral stent insertion between January 2006 and December 2013. All patients were aged <10 years and were followed up until ureteral stent removal. Information regarding patient demographics, reason for stent insertion, duration of stent maintenance, stent diameter and length, and postoperative results was collected. Risk factors for stent failure were analyzed. Results Ureteral stenting was performed in 114 ureter units. The median age at stenting was 34.1 months (interquartile range [IQR], 8.1-71.2 months), and the median duration of stent maintenance was 35.0 days (IQR, 21.0-44.3 days). A 3-Fr stent was used in 39.5% of patients. Stent failure was observed in 11 ureter units (9.6%) at a median of 11.5 days (IQR, 7.8-24.5 days) after insertion, and the stent was subsequently removed. Use of a 3-Fr ureteral stent was the only risk factor for the development of stent failure; the failure rate was 20.0% with this stent diameter. Conclusion Ureteral stenting was a useful procedure with a high success rate, even in patients aged <10 years. A 3-Fr ureteral stent was the only risk factor for stent failure; its substantial failure rate should be considered when deciding whether to insert a stent. Also, short-term re-evaluation after ureteral stent insertion is mandatory, especially with 3-Fr ureteral stents.
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