Actinic keratosis is a premalignant skin lesion that develops into non-melanoma skin cancer. Various imaging techniques have been developed to find the actinic keratosis lesion. In this clinical study, the feasibility of a nonspectroscopic fluorescence imaging system is investigated for spatial assessment of the actinic keratosis lesion. Six patients between the ages of 70 and 80 years old are diagnosed with actinic keratosis by a board-certified dermatologist to obtain biopsy-proven clinical images. The patients were treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid, which is transformed into the protoporphyrin IX. After illuminating ultraviolet-A light on facial lesions, the protoporphyrin IX produces the exogenous fluorescence. The fluorescence is measured using both a hyperspectral camera and an RGB color camera to obtain spectroscopic and nonspectroscopic fluorescence images, respectively. It is found that fluorescence intensity of the actinic keratosis lesion is higher than that of normal skin. Based on combined fluorescence and physiological characteristics, the actinic keratosis lesion is distinguished from the adjacent normal skin area. For delineation of the actinic keratosis lesion, a linear unmixing algorithm is applied to spectroscopic image data and an erythema index is calculated from nonspectroscopic image data. Then, two extracted actinic keratosis lesions are compared for cross-validation. As a result, both spectroscopic and nonspectroscopic fluorescence images demarcate an identical lesion of actinic keratosis. Given the affordability and simplicity, an RGB camera and a 5-ALA photosensitizer can be used as a cost-effective nonspectroscopic imaging modality for accurate assessment of actinic keratosis margins.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (2019R1A2C2091068).
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