Background: The pronator drift test (PDT), a neurological examination, is widely used in clinics to measure motor weakness of stroke patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a PDT tool with machine learning classifiers to detect stroke symptoms based on quantification of proximal arm weakness using inertial sensors and signal processing. Methods: We extracted features of drift and pronation from accelerometer signals of wearable devices on the inner wrists of 16 stroke patients and 10 healthy controls. Signal processing and feature selection approach were applied to discriminate PDT features used to classify stroke patients. A series of machine learning techniques, namely support vector machine (SVM), radial basis function network (RBFN), and random forest (RF), were implemented to discriminate stroke patients from controls with leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: Signal processing by the PDT tool extracted a total of 12 PDT features from sensors. Feature selection abstracted the major attributes from the 12 PDT features to elucidate the dominant characteristics of proximal weakness of stroke patients using machine learning classification. Our proposed PDT classifiers had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of .806 (SVM), .769 (RBFN), and .900 (RF) without feature selection, and feature selection improves the AUCs to .913 (SVM), .956 (RBFN), and .975 (RF), representing an average performance enhancement of 15.3%. Conclusions: Sensors and machine learning methods can reliably detect stroke signs and quantify proximal arm weakness. Our proposed solution will facilitate pervasive monitoring of stroke patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health Informatics