Transparent nano-structured hematite (α-Fe2O3) films of approximately 550 nm thickness on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) have been obtained conveniently by ink-jet printing of a Fe(NO3)3/Brij® O10 precursor ink and subsequent annealing at 500 °C in air. When illuminated with a blue LED (λ = 455 nm, ca. 100 mW cm−2), the hematite films exhibited photocurrents of up to 70 μA cm−2 at 0.4 V vs. SCE in 0.1 M NaOH electrolyte. Thermal annealing in vacuum at 500 °C for 2 h increased photocurrents more than three times to 230 μA cm−2 in agreement with previous literature reports for pure hematite materials. These results suggest that a simple ink-jetting process with surfactants is viable. The effects of vacuum-annealing on the photoelectrical properties of α-Fe2O3 films are discussed in terms of a sub-surface state templating hypothesis based on data gathered from photo-transients, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, photocurrent spectra, and cyclic voltammetry.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
A.N.B. and J.A.A.-M. thank the National Science and Technology Council of Mexico (CONACYT) for the financial support of their research. A.W. acknowledges a University Research Fellowship from the Royal Society. E.M. thanks EPSRC (EP/K004956/1) for support.
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology