This study aimed to revise and validate a Chinese version of Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (C-PMWI). In the preparation phase, the PMWI was first revised for the possible cultural differences between Chinese and non-Chinese women. Supplementary items on use of electronic devices as a contemporary form of monitoring were added. Forward and back translated items were reviewed by a panel of intimate partner violence (IPV) experts, resulting in the scale-level content validity index of 0.94. Cognitive debriefing was conducted to confirm comprehensibility. The newly revised measure was administered to the sample of 1,198 Chinese women, recruited from community centers and shelters in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis conducted on data from half the sample revealed a two-factor structure similar to the original English version: emotional-verbal and dominance-isolation. This structure was verified by confirmatory factor analysis with the other half of the sample. Known-groups validity was demonstrated by significant differences in scores between women with different relationship histories. Moderate-to-strong correlations of the C-PMWI with other forms of IPV, controlling behaviors, relationship satisfaction, and depression established convergent validity. The C-PMWI showed good internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alpha >.9 for the entire scale and each subscale. The intraclass correlation across administrations 2 weeks was >.9, demonstrating test–retest reliability. The use of the comprehensive validation procedures in the present study provided evidence for both cultural appropriateness and satisfactory psychometric properties of the C-PMWI. The C-PMWI shows promise as a useful instrument for research and clinical practice with Chinese women.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to the involved community agencies and shelters for assisting recruitment of participants and allowing us to conduct surveys, to Kallie Law, Polly Wong, and Margaret Lee for helping with data collection. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The study was funded by the Small Project Funding, The University of Hong Kong (2011-2013).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Psychology
- Applied Psychology