Validity of the 15-item five-facet mindfulness questionnaire among an ethnically diverse sample of university students

Hanjoe Kim, Nan Li, Amanda Broyles, Lena Musoka, Virmarie Correa-Fernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: This study examines the psychometrics of the 15-item version of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-15). Participants: An ethnically diverse sample of 538 college students participated in this study. Methods: The factor structure was evaluated through confirmatory factor analyses fitting 64 alternative models with and without method factors. Model fit as well as valid interpretations of the model parameters were considered in selecting the final model. Utilizing the final selected model, the relationship between mindfulness and the mindfulness facets with two related constructs, psychological inflexibility and emotional distress tolerance was examined. Results: The five-facet second-order model with a single-method factor best fitted to the data and provided sound, interpretable estimates. After accounting for the single-method effect, overall mindfulness was positively correlated with emotional distress tolerance and negatively correlated with psychological inflexibility. Conclusions: The FFMQ-15 was a valid measure of mindfulness among university students when accounting for the method factor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)450-459
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of American College Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Work on this manuscript was supported by an American Cancer Society’s Mentored Research Scholar Grant (MRSG-15-018-01-CPPB to Virmarie Correa-Fernández). The content of this paper is solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the American Cancer Society.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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