Agricultural residues are naturally available lignocellulosic biomass having high content of carbon. These residues should imminently be discarded to prevent pollution or can be harnessed for the production of bioenergy and bio-based products. This paper reviews the various types of agricultural residues such as rice straw, wheat straw, maize straw etc and their utilization for the generation of high valuable products. Basic components of agricultural residues which act as a feedstock for bioenergy production and also different biorefineries of agricultural residues based on cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin for the transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products are discussed. Economic analysis performs a major role in technical advancement to ensure economic viability for the valorization of agricultural residues. This paper casts insight into the techno-economic analysis and the life-cycle assessment, the most pertinent approach to assess the environmental consequences of the developed products. To conclude, a discussion and suggestion for future studies is presented.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India under its initiative Mission innovation Challenge Scheme (IC4). The grant from the project entitled “A novel integrated biorefinery for conversion of lignocellulosic agro waste into value added products and bioenergy” (BT/PR31054/PBD/26/763/2019) is utilized for this study.
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Process Chemistry and Technology