Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Serum cystatin C has emerged as a reliable marker of AKI. We sought to assess the value of serum cystatin C for early detection and prediction of renal function recovery in patients with sepsis. Materials and Methods: Sepsis patients (113 AKI patients and 49 non-AKI patients) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels and glomerular filtration rate were measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. Results: Serum cystatin C levels were significantly higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients at all time points. Multivariate analysis showed that only serum cystatin C levels on day 0 were associated with AKI development [odds ratio (OR)=19.30; 95% confidence interval (CI)= 2.58–144.50, p<0.001]. Linear mixed model analysis showed significant variation in cystatin C levels between the recovery and non-recovery groups over time (p=0.001). High levels of serum cystatin C at day 0 (OR=1.64; 95% CI=1.00–2.68, p=0.048) were associated with recovery of AKI. Conclusion: Serum cystatin C level was found to be associated with the development and worsening of AKI in ICU patients with sepsis.
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