3-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3-HBA) is a precursor compound for phenolic compounds like Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA). From recent reports, PCA has shown vasculoprotective potency, but the effects of 3-HBA remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the vasculoprotective effects of 3-HBA in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and various animal models. We tested effects of 3-HBA in both vitro and vivo. 3-HBA showed that it prevents PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and proliferation from MTS, BrdU assays and inhibition of AKT phosphorylation. It arrested S and G0/G1 phase of VSMC cell cycle in PI staining and it also showed inhibited expression levels of Rb1 and CD1. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), 3-HBA inhibited inflammatory markers and signaling molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, p-NF-KB and p-p38). For ex vivo, 3-HBA has shown dramatic effects in suppressing the sprouting from aortic ring of Spargue Dawley (SD) rats. In vivo data supported the vasculoprotective effects of 3-HBA as it inhibited angiogenesis from Matrigel Plug assay in C57BL6 mouse, prevented ADP-induced thrombus generation, increased blood circulation after formation of thrombus, and attenuated neointima formation induced by common carotid artery balloon injury of SD rats. 3-HBA, a novel therapeutic agent, has shown vasculoprotective potency in both in vitro and in vivo.
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© 2016 Kong et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)