We have examined the mechanisms by which tumor cells bind to endothelial cells utilizing cultured melanoma cells and microvascular endothelial cells derived from human dermis (HDMEC). The ability of biologic response modifiers (BRM) to modulate the adhesion of melanoma cells to HDMEC was defined and those results were compared with results from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). SK-MEL-2, WM 266-4, and Hs 294T melanoma cells all bound to HDMEC and HUVEC monolayers and adherence of melanoma cells was enhanced in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the treatment HDMEC with interleukin 1 (IL-1) alpha or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. Similar increases in binding to HDMEC or HUVEC were induced after BRM stimulation, although baseline melanoma cell binding to HUVEC tended to be slightly higher than to HDMEC. In contrast, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) augmented melanoma cell adherence to HDMEC, PMA failed to increase adherence to HUVEC. The alterations in melanoma cell binding were induced only after pretreatment of endothelial and not melanoma cells with PMA. Studies of the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) on HDMEC and HUVEC using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is not induced by PMA on HDMEC and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is downregulated on HDMEC by PMA treatment. Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1) is induced by PMA, IL-1alpha, or TNFalpha, but its expression does not correlate with increased melanoma cell binding MoAb recognizing VCAM-1-inhibited TNFalpha-induced increases in melanoma cell binding to HUVEC. However, anti-VCAM-1 antibody failed to clock melanoma cell binding to PMA or IL-1alpha-stimulated HDMEC and only partially inhibited melanoma cell binding to TNFalpha-stimulated HDMEC. This study demonstrates that PMA and IL-1alpha-induced increases in melanoma cell adherence to HDMEC are not mediated via known CAM, including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, or ELAM-1, and may be affected through microvessel-specific novel proteins not previously described on endothelial cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology