Energy level alignments at the interface of N,N′-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB)/VO2/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) were studied by photoemission spectroscopy. The overall hole injection barrier between FTO and NPB was reduced from 1.38 to 0.59 eV with the insertion of a VO2 hole injection layer. This could allow direct hole injection from FTO to NPB through a shallow valence band of VO2. Surprisingly, VO2 can also act as a charge generation layer due to its small band gap of 0.80 eV. That is, its conduction band is quite close to the Fermi level, and thus electrons can be extracted from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of NPB, which is equivalent to hole injection into the NPB HOMO.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Materials Chemistry
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering