Vertically constructed monolithic electrodes for sodium ion batteries: Toward low tortuosity and high energy density

Ping Li, Yanan Wang, Jong Yeob Jeong, Xiaoming Gao, Kan Zhang, Anne Neville, Shusheng Xu, Jong Hyeok Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Nanomaterials for battery applications are strongly appealing to the industrial community, yet conventional electrode fabrication by employing a slurry paste restricts the potential performances of nanoengineered materials, particularly with commercial-level thickness and high mass loading. Here, physical vapor deposition (PVD) prepared monolithic electrodes composed of 40 μm-thick anisotropic WS2 vertical arrays on Al foil with a mass loading of 17.5 mg cm-2, and several sparsely inserted nanometre-thick carbon layers are reported. The monolithic anode shows an ultra-fast Na-ion diffusivity of 2.05 × 10-10 cm2 s-1, which is two orders of magnitude faster than that of the anode prepared from a slurry paste. As a sodium-ion battery (SIB) anode, the monolithic electrode achieves prominent areal and volumetric capacities of 5.57 mA h cm-2 and 1.39 A h cm-3, respectively, at a current density of 100 mA g-1 with less than 20% decay during 300 cycles. Furthermore, a SIB full cell composed of the monolithic anode and a Na2V3(PO4)3/C cathode can provide a reversible capacity around 125 mA h g-1 at 2C with an output voltage of 1.77 V, which demonstrates its potential for further development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25985-25992
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue number45
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
J. H. Park acknowledges the support by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by Ministry of Science and ICT (2018M3D1A1058624 (Creative Materials Discovery Program), 2019R1A2C3010479). K. Zhang acknowledges the support by NSFC (51802157), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (BK20180493). P. Li and Y. Wang contributed equally to this work.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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