Purpose: To describe 2 unrelated families with multiple members demonstrating a less commonly recognized vortex pattern of corneal deposits confirmed to be granular corneal dystrophy type 1 (GCD1) after identification of the p.(Arg555Trp) mutation in the transforming growth factor β-induced gene (TGFBI). Methods: A slit-lamp examination was performed on individuals from 2 families, one of Mexican descent and a second of Italian descent. After DNA extraction from affected individuals and their unaffected relatives, TGFBI screening was performed. Results: Eight of 20 individuals in the Mexican family and 20 of 55 in the Italian family demonstrated corneal stromal opacities. Seven of the 8 affected individuals in the Mexican family and 4 of the 20 affected individuals in the Italian family demonstrated a phenotype characterized by a "sea fan" or vortex pattern of superficial stromal corneal deposits originating from the inferior aspect of the cornea. Screening of TGFBI in both families revealed a heterozygous missense mutation [p.(Arg555Trp)] in exon 12, confirming the diagnosis of GCD1. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that GCD1 may present with a vortex pattern of anterior stromal deposits. Although this pattern of dystrophic deposits is not recognized by clinicians as a typical phenotype of GCD1, it is consistent with the production of the majority of the TGFBI protein by the corneal epithelium.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
National Eye Institute grants R01EY022082 (A.J.A.) and P30EY000331 (core grant to the Stein Eye Institute), an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness (Stein Eye Institute), "Conde de Valenciana" foundation.
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