Public officials must not only comply with administrative procedures based on administrative rulebooks but also follow particular procedures requested by their supervisors in a bureaucratic system, which might be even more significant in a hierarchical culture. Noting that the impact of hierarchical procedures on red tape perception has not been extensively examined, this study investigates the potential difference in the effects of administrative and hierarchical procedures on the perception of red tape. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 experiment design to examine the effects of the nature of procedures, outcome favorability, and degree of procedures, vignette-based experiments were conducted for empirical analysis. This study suggests that the red tape perception resulting from hierarchical procedures is only significantly affected by the nature of outcomes (positive versus negative) and not by the degree of hierarchical procedures. In contrast the red tape perception related to administrative procedures is affected by both outcome favorability and degree of procedures. Among various Confucian values, this study also finds that face-saving and humility affect the perception of red tape.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Public Administration
- Strategy and Management