When can women close the gap? A meta-analytic test of sex differences in performance and rewards

Aparna Joshi, Jooyeon Son, Hyuntak Roh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

80 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Drawing on macro and micro domains in gender research, we meta-analytically test whether occupation-, industry-, and job-level factors mitigate or exacerbate differences in performance evaluations (k = 93; n = 95,882) and rewards (k = 97; n = 378,850) between men and women. Based on studies conducted across a variety of work settings and spanning nearly 30 years, we found that the sex differences in rewards (d = .56) (including salary, bonuses, and promotions) were 14 times larger than sex differences in performance evaluations (d = .04), and that differences in performance evaluations did not explain reward differences between men and women. The percentage of men in an occupation and the complexity of jobs performed by employees enhanced the male-female gap in performance and rewards. In highly prestigious occupations, women performed equally, but were rewarded significantly lower than men. Only a higher representation of female executives at the industry level enabled women to reverse the gender gap in rewards and performance evaluations. Our configurational analysis also revealed that some occupation-, industry-, and job-level attributes of the work context jointly contributed to differences in rewards and performance evaluations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1516-1545
Number of pages30
JournalAcademy of Management Journal
Volume58
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 1

Fingerprint

Industry
Wages
Macros
Personnel
Reward
Sex differences
Performance evaluation
Salary
Employees
Factors
Bonuses
Gender gap

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business and International Management
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation

Cite this

@article{a850c558f80c4642a3e720267dd6a8c8,
title = "When can women close the gap? A meta-analytic test of sex differences in performance and rewards",
abstract = "Drawing on macro and micro domains in gender research, we meta-analytically test whether occupation-, industry-, and job-level factors mitigate or exacerbate differences in performance evaluations (k = 93; n = 95,882) and rewards (k = 97; n = 378,850) between men and women. Based on studies conducted across a variety of work settings and spanning nearly 30 years, we found that the sex differences in rewards (d = .56) (including salary, bonuses, and promotions) were 14 times larger than sex differences in performance evaluations (d = .04), and that differences in performance evaluations did not explain reward differences between men and women. The percentage of men in an occupation and the complexity of jobs performed by employees enhanced the male-female gap in performance and rewards. In highly prestigious occupations, women performed equally, but were rewarded significantly lower than men. Only a higher representation of female executives at the industry level enabled women to reverse the gender gap in rewards and performance evaluations. Our configurational analysis also revealed that some occupation-, industry-, and job-level attributes of the work context jointly contributed to differences in rewards and performance evaluations.",
author = "Aparna Joshi and Jooyeon Son and Hyuntak Roh",
year = "2015",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.5465/amj.2013.0721",
language = "English",
volume = "58",
pages = "1516--1545",
journal = "Academy of Management Journal",
issn = "0001-4273",
publisher = "Academy of Management",
number = "5",

}

When can women close the gap? A meta-analytic test of sex differences in performance and rewards. / Joshi, Aparna; Son, Jooyeon; Roh, Hyuntak.

In: Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 58, No. 5, 01.10.2015, p. 1516-1545.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - When can women close the gap? A meta-analytic test of sex differences in performance and rewards

AU - Joshi, Aparna

AU - Son, Jooyeon

AU - Roh, Hyuntak

PY - 2015/10/1

Y1 - 2015/10/1

N2 - Drawing on macro and micro domains in gender research, we meta-analytically test whether occupation-, industry-, and job-level factors mitigate or exacerbate differences in performance evaluations (k = 93; n = 95,882) and rewards (k = 97; n = 378,850) between men and women. Based on studies conducted across a variety of work settings and spanning nearly 30 years, we found that the sex differences in rewards (d = .56) (including salary, bonuses, and promotions) were 14 times larger than sex differences in performance evaluations (d = .04), and that differences in performance evaluations did not explain reward differences between men and women. The percentage of men in an occupation and the complexity of jobs performed by employees enhanced the male-female gap in performance and rewards. In highly prestigious occupations, women performed equally, but were rewarded significantly lower than men. Only a higher representation of female executives at the industry level enabled women to reverse the gender gap in rewards and performance evaluations. Our configurational analysis also revealed that some occupation-, industry-, and job-level attributes of the work context jointly contributed to differences in rewards and performance evaluations.

AB - Drawing on macro and micro domains in gender research, we meta-analytically test whether occupation-, industry-, and job-level factors mitigate or exacerbate differences in performance evaluations (k = 93; n = 95,882) and rewards (k = 97; n = 378,850) between men and women. Based on studies conducted across a variety of work settings and spanning nearly 30 years, we found that the sex differences in rewards (d = .56) (including salary, bonuses, and promotions) were 14 times larger than sex differences in performance evaluations (d = .04), and that differences in performance evaluations did not explain reward differences between men and women. The percentage of men in an occupation and the complexity of jobs performed by employees enhanced the male-female gap in performance and rewards. In highly prestigious occupations, women performed equally, but were rewarded significantly lower than men. Only a higher representation of female executives at the industry level enabled women to reverse the gender gap in rewards and performance evaluations. Our configurational analysis also revealed that some occupation-, industry-, and job-level attributes of the work context jointly contributed to differences in rewards and performance evaluations.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84945157075&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84945157075&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.5465/amj.2013.0721

DO - 10.5465/amj.2013.0721

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84945157075

VL - 58

SP - 1516

EP - 1545

JO - Academy of Management Journal

JF - Academy of Management Journal

SN - 0001-4273

IS - 5

ER -