Can we recognize intraoperative real-time stress of orthopedic surgeons and which factors affect the stress of intraoperative orthopedic surgeons with EEG and HRV? From June 2018 to November 2018, 265 consecutive records of intraoperative stress measures for orthopedic surgeons were compared. Intraoperative EEG waves and HRV, comprising beats per minute (BPM) and low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio were gathered for stress-associated parameters. Differences in stress parameters according to the experience of surgeons, intraoperative blood loss, and operation time depending on whether or not a tourniquet were investigated. Stress-associated EEG signals including beta 3 waves were significantly higher compared to EEG at rest for novice surgeons as the procedure progressed. Among senior surgeons, the LF/HF ratio reflecting the physical demands of stress was higher than that of novice surgeons at all stages. In surgeries including tourniquets, operation time was positively correlated with stress parameters including beta 1, beta 2, beta 3 waves and BPM. In non-tourniquet orthopedic surgeries, intraoperative blood loss was positively correlated with beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 waves. Among orthopedic surgeons, those with less experience demonstrated relatively higher levels of stress during surgery. Prolonged operation time or excessive intraoperative blood loss appear to be contributing factors that increase stress.
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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Information Systems
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering