Who spends more to combat COVID-19 social risks and why?

Hye Sang Noh, Seon hoe Han, Young Jun Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


COVID-19 has gone beyond a public health crisis and poses a serious threat to people's livelihoods. In response to the growing employment and income crisis, most OECD countries have introduced various policies and programs to alleviate rapidly rising social risks and stabilise people's livelihoods. However, these measures vary, with some governments spending only 1% of GDP in 2020, while others spent more than 10%. We conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine factors associated with the level of additional social spending in 31 OECD countries. The results indicate that lower generosity of unemployment benefits was associated with additional social policy spending. However, contrary to the hypothesis, higher additional spending was found among countries with higher levels of government debt. We ended with policy recommendations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-406
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Social Welfare
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by the Ministry of Education in the Republic of Korea (NRF‐2021S1A5A2A01070179) Funding information

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Akademikerförbundet SSR (ASSR) and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Sociology and Political Science


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