With-No-Lysine [K] 4 (WNK4) kinase regulates the surface expression of various ion transporters. Not only ion transporters but G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) can function properly when their expression level is appropriate at the plasma membrane. In this study, we examined the role of WNK4 kinase in the regulation of muscarinic receptor 3 (M3R) using physiological and biochemical experiments. Measurement of the pilocarpine-responsive [Ca2+]i change demonstrated that WNK4 kinase decreased the activity of M3R through its reduced surface expression. Kinase domain of WNK4 bound with the third intracellular region of M3R whereas its negative regulation was independent on the kinase activity. Comparable to wild-type WNK4, kinase-inactive WNK4D318A mutant also reduced the surface expression of M3R, whereas the kinase domain of WNK41-441 failed to reduce the surface expression of M3R. In accordance with surface biotinylation experiments, non-permeable immunostaining of M3R also showed that M3R surface expression is independent on the kinase activity of WNK4. Interestingly, comparison of the half life of total and surface M3R revealed that only the half life of total M3R, but not surface M3R was decreased by WNK4 kinase. Nevertheless, the rate of decrease in surface M3R always exceeded that of total M3R. Taken together, these results suggest that WNK4 kinase negatively regulates the anterograde trafficking of M3R through kinase-independent mechanism.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a faculty research grant from Yonsei University College of Medicine for 2007 ( 6-2007-0024 ) and a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant , funded by the Korean Government (MEST) ( NRF-2007-0054658 ). We thank Yonsei-Carl Zeiss Advance Imaging Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, for technical assistance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology