Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and is in urgent need of new treatment options. The only approved treatment for stroke restores blood flow to the brain, but much of the tissue damage occurs during the subsequent reperfusion. Antioxidant therapies that directly address ischemia-reperfusion injury have shown promise in preclinical results. In this review, we discuss that reformulating antioxidant therapies as nanomedicine can potentially overcome the barriers that have kept these therapies from succeeding in the clinic. We begin by reviewing the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke with a focus on the effects of reperfusion injury. Next, we review nanotherapeutic systems designed to treat the disease with a focus on those addressing reperfusion injury. Mechanisms of passive and active transport required to traverse a blood-brain barrier are discussed. Finally, we conclude by outlining design parameters for potentially successful nanomedicines as front-line therapeutics for ischemic stroke.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant # DMR-1741560 (S Hong). The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering
- Materials Science(all)