Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of xanthorrhizol (5-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-2-methylphenol, XA) in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Main methods: Experimental colitis was induced by exposing male BALB/c mice to 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. XA (10 or 100 mg/kg) was administered orally once a day, together with the DSS. We evaluated body weight, colon length, histological changes, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. A cDNA microarray was used to assess the gene expression profiles that were affected by XA and DSS treatment and a co-citation analysis was used to examine the biological relationship between XA-responsive genes and colitis. Key findings: Decreased body weight, shortened colon length, and damaged colon were observed in the group that was exposed to DSS. Oral administration of XA (10 or 100 mg/kg) rescued these symptomatic and histopathological features. The DSS-induced increase in MPO activity, which was used as an index of neutrophil infiltration, was significantly decreased after treatment with XA. Microarray analysis revealed that XA treatment regulated the expression of 34 genes that were altered by exposure to DSS, and that these XA-responsive genes were associated with colonic inflammation. Furthermore, co-citation analysis and graphing of XA-responsive genes revealed a network associated with the gene that encodes for MPO. Significance: These results suggest that XA attenuates acute DSS-induced colitis, possibly by modulating the expression of genes mostly associated with colonic inflammation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)