Ga-doped ZnO (GZO)-graded layer, facilitating electron extraction from electron transport layer, was integrated on the surface of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode by using graded sputtering technique to improve the performance of planar n-i-p perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The thickness of graded GZO layer was controlled to optimize GZO–indium tin oxide (ITO) combined electrode for planar n-i-p PSCs. At optimized graded thickness of 15 nm, the GZO–ITO combined electrode showed an optical transmittance of 95%, a resistivity of 2.3 × 10−4 Ohm cm, a sheet resistance of 15.6 Ohm/square, and work function of 4.23 eV, which is well matched with the 4.0-eV lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. Owing to enhanced extraction of electron by the graded GZO, the n-i-p PSC with GZO–ITO combined electrode showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.67% than the PCE (5.25%) of PSC with only ITO electrode without GZO-graded layer. In addition, the GZO integrated-ITO electrode acts as transparent electrode and electron extraction layer simultaneously due to graded mixing of the GZO at the surface region of ITO electrode.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)